Kenneth R. Koedinger

 

koedinger@cmu.edu
Professor of Human Computer Interaction and Psychology

Director of the Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center

 

 

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  1. Dissertation
  2. Refereed Journal Papers - Published
  3. Refereed Journal Papers - Accepted
  4. Refereed Journal Papers - Submitted
  5. Refereed Journal Papers - In Progress
  6. Refereed Papers in Conference Proceedings
  7. Refereed Conference Papers
  8. UnRefereed Conference/Workshop Presentations and White Papers
  9. Books
  10. Chapters in Books
  11. Technical Reports
  12. Patents and Invention Disclosures

Dissertation:

Kenneth Koedinger, (1991) Tutoring Concepts, Precepts, and Rules in Geometry Problem Solving "Unpublished Manuscript"[PDF]

Refereed Journal Papers – Published

Yannier, N., Hudson, S.E., Wiese, E., Koedinger, K.R. (2016) Adding Physical Objects to an Interactive Game Improves Learning and Enjoyment. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 23 (4), Article 26. DOI=http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/293466

Koedinger, K.R., Yudelson, M.V., & Pavlik, P.I. (2016). Testing theories of transfer using error rate learning curves.  Topics in Cognitive Cognitive Science, 8 (3), 589–609.

MacLellan, C.J., Harpstead, E., Aleven, V., Koedinger K.R. (2016) TRESTLE: A Model of Concept Formation in Structured Domains. Advances in Cognitive Systems, 4, 131-150.

Koedinger, K.R. & Aleven, V. (2016). An Interview Reflection on “Intelligent Tutoring Goes to School in the Big City.” International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education , 26(1), 13-24.

Aleven, V., Roll, I.,  McLaren, B.M., & Koedinger, K.R. (2016). Help Helps, But Only So Much: Research on Help Seeking with Intelligent Tutoring Systems. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 26, (1), 205-223.

Rivers, K. & Koedinger, K.R. (2015). Data-Driven Hint Generation in Vast Solution Spaces: A Self-Improving Python Programming Tutor. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education: 1-28.

Koedinger, K.R., D'Mello, S., McLaughlin, E. A., Pardos, Z. A. and Rosé, C. P. (2015). Data mining and education. WIREs Cognitive Science, 6: 333–353. doi:10.1002/wcs.1350 K

Li, N., Matsuda, N., Cohen, W., & Koedinger, K.R. (2015). Integrating representation learning and skill learning in a human-like intelligent agent. Artificial Intelligence.

Matsuda, N., Cohen, W. W., & Koedinger, K. R. (in press). (PDF). International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education.

Roll, I., Baker, R. S. J. d., Aleven, V., & Koedinger, K. R. (2014). On the Benefits of Seeking (and Avoiding) Help in Online Problem-Solving Environments, Journal of the Learning Sciences, 23(4), 537-560, DOI: 10.1080/10508406.2014.88397.

Walker, E., Rummel, N., & Koedinger, K.R. (2014).  Adaptive intelligent support to improve peer tutoring in algebra.  To appear in International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education.

Koedinger, K.R., Brunskill, E., Baker, R.S.J.d., McLaughlin, E.A., Stamper, J. (2013) New potentials for data-driven intelligent tutoring system development and optimization. To appear in AI Magazine.[PDF]

Koedinger, K.R., Booth, J.L., & Klahr, D. (2013). Instructional complexity and the science to constrain it. Science, 342, 935-937.[PDF]

Koedinger, K.R., Stamper, J.C., Leber, B., & Skogsholm, A. (2013). LearnLab's DataShop: A Data Repository and Analytics Tool Set for Cognitive Science. Topics in Cognitive Science.(PDF)

Booth, J.L., Lange, K.E., Koedinger, K.R., & Newton, K.J. (2013). Example problems that improve student learning in algebra: Differentiating between correct and incorrect examples. Learning and Instruction, 25, 24-34.

Matsuda, N., Yarzebinski, E., Keiser, V., Raizada, R., William, W. C., Stylianides, G. J., & Koedinge, K. R. (2013). Cognitive anatomy of tutor learning: Lessons learned with SimStudent. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(4), 1152-1163. doi: 10.1037/a0031955

Li, N., Schreiber, A., Cohen, W., & Koedinger, K. (2012). Efficient complex skill acquisition through representation learning. Advances in Cognitive Systems, 2, 149-166. [PDF]

Anthony, L., Yang, J., and Koedinger, K.R. (2012). A paradigm for a handwriting-based intelligent tutor. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Volume 70, Issue 11, 866-887. (PDF)

Koedinger, K. R., Corbett, A. C., & Perfetti, C. (2012).  The Knowledge-Learning-Instruction (KLI) framework: Bridging the science-practice chasm to enhance robust student learning. Cognitive Science, 36 (5), 757-798. [PDF]

Booth, J.L., & Koedinger, K.R. (2012). Are diagrams always helpful tools? Developmental and individual differences in the effect of presentation format on student problem solving. British Journal of Educational Psychology. (PDF)

Walker, E., Rummel, N., & Koedinger, K. R. (2011). Designing automated adaptive support to improve student helping behaviors in a peer tutoring activity. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 6 (2), 279-306.(PDF)

Martin, B., Mitrovic, T., Mathan, S., & Koedinger, K.R. (2011). Evaluating and improving adaptive educational systems with learning curves. User Model User-Adap Inter (2011) 21:249–283.[PDF]

Roll, I. , Aleven, V., McLaren, B.M., & Koedinger, K. R. (2011). Improving students' help-seeking skills using meta-cognitive feedback in an intelligent tutoring system. Learning and Instruction, 21, 267-280. (PDF)

Salden, R.J.C.M., Koedinger, K.R., Renkl, A., Aleven, V., & McLaren, B.M. (2010). Accounting for beneficial effects of worked examples in tutored problem solving. Educational Psychology Review. doi: 10.1007/s10648-010-9143-6. [PDF]

Koedinger, K.R., McLaughlin, E.A., & Heffernan, N. T. (2010). A quasi-experimental evaluation of an on-line formative assessment and tutoring system. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 43 (4), 489-510. (PDF)

Aleven, V., Roll, I., McLaren, B.M., & Koedinger, K.R. (2010). Automated, unobtrusive, action-by- action assessment of self-regulation during learning with an intelligent tutoring system. Educational Psychologist, 45(4), 224-233. (PDF)

Diziol, D., Walker, E., Rummel, N., & Koedinger, K. (2010). Using intelligent tutor technology to implement adaptive support for student collaboration. Educational Psychology Review, 22(1), 89-102. [PDF]

Rittle-Johnson, B. & Koedinger, K.R. (2009).  It’s not a one-way street: Iterating between conceptual and procedural lessons can improve mathematics knowledge. British Journal of Educational Psychology. [PDF]

Aleven, V., McLaren, B., Sewall, J., & Koedinger, K. R. (2009). Example-tracing tutors: A new paradigm for intelligent tutoring systems. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, (IJAIED). Special Issue on "Authoring Systems for Intelligent Tutoring Systems." in press,19: 105-154. [PDF]

Leena M., Razzaq, L., Patvarczki, J., Shane F.J., Almeida, S. F., Vartak, M., Feng, M., Heffernan, N. T., & Koedinger, K. R. (2009). The Assistment Builder: Supporting the life cycle of tutoring system content creation. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 2(2), 157-166. [PDF]

Walker, E., Rummel, N., & Koedinger, K. R. (2009). CTRL: A research framework for providing adaptive collaborative learning support. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction: The Journal of Personalization Research (UMUAI), 19(5): 387-431.  [PDF]

Feng, M., Heffernan, N.T., & Koedinger, K.R. (2009). Addressing the assessment challenge in an online system that tutors as it assesses. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction: The Journal of Personalization Research (UMUAI). 19(3), pp. 243-266. [2009 James Chen Annual Award for Best UMUAI Paper]  [PDF]

Walker, E., Rummel, N., & Koedinger, K. R. (2009). Integrating collaboration and intelligent tutoring data in evaluation of a reciprocal peer tutoring environment.  Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning, 4(3), 221-251. [PDF]

Rittle-Johnson, B. & Koedinger, K.R. (2009). Iterating between lessons on concepts and procedures can improve mathematics knowledge. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 483 – 500. [PDF]

Baker, R.S.J.d., Corbett, A.T., Roll, I., Koedinger, K.R. (2008).  Developing a generalizable detector of when students game the system.  User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction: The Journal of Personalization Research (UMUAI), 18(3), 287-314. [PDF]

Baker, R., Walonoski, J., Heffernan, N., Roll, I. , Corbett, A., Koedinger, K. R. (2008). Why students engage in "gaming the system" behavior in interactive learning environments. Journal of Interactive Learning Research, 19 (2), 185-224.  [PDF]

Heffernan, N. T., Koedinger, K. R., & Razzaq, L. (2008). Expanding the model-tracing architecture: A 3rd generation intelligent tutor for algebra symbolization. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 18, 153-178. [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R., Alibali, M. W., & Nathan, M. M. (2008). Trade-offs between grounded and abstract representations: Evidence from algebra problem solving.  Cognitive Science, 32(2): 366-397. [PDF]

Anthony, L., Yang, J., & Koedinger, K. R. (2008) Toward Next-Generation Intelligent Tutors: Adding Natural Handwriting Input, IEEE Multimedia, Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 64-68  [PDF]

Baker, R. S. J. d., Corbett, A. T. & Koedinger, K. R. (2007). The difficulty factors approach to the design of lessons in intelligent tutor curricula. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 17(4), 341-369.  [PDF]

Roll, I., Aleven, V., McLaren, B. M., & Koedinger, K. R. (2007). Designing for metacognition—applying cognitive tutor principles to the tutoring of help seeking. Metacognition and Learning, 2(2).  [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R. & Aleven, V. (2007).  Exploring the assistance dilemma in experiments with Cognitive Tutors.  Educational Psychology Review, 19 (3): 239-264.  [PDF]

Ritter S., Anderson, J. R., Koedinger, K. R., & Corbett, A. (2007). Cognitive tutor: Applied research in mathematics education. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14 (2):249-255.  [PDF]

Baker, R.S., Corbett, A.T., Koedinger, K.R. (2006). Responding to problem behaviors in Cognitive Tutors: Towards educational systems which support all students. National Association for the Dually Diagnosed (NADD) Bulletin, 9 (4), 70-75.  [PDF]

Aleven, V., McLaren, B.M., Roll, I., & Koedinger, K.R. (2006). Toward meta-cognitive tutoring: A model of help seeking with a Cognitive Tutor. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 16, 101-128. [PDF]

Rittle-Johnson, B. & Koedinger, K. R. (2005). Designing knowledge scaffolds to support mathematical problem solving. Cognition and Instruction. 23(3), 313-349.  [PDF]

Mathan, S. A. & Koedinger, K. R. (2005) Fostering the Intelligent Novice: Learning from errors with metacognitive tutoring. Educational Psychologist. 40(4), 257-265.  [PDF]

Sohn, M.-H., Goode, A., Koedinger, K. R., Stenger, V. A, Fissell, K., Carter, C. S., & Anderson, J. R. (2004). Behavioral equivalence, but not neural equivalence: Neural evidence of alternative strategies in mathematical thinking. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 1193-1994.  [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R. & Nathan, M. J. (2004).  The real story behind story problems: Effects of representations on quantitative reasoning.  The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 13 (2), 129-164. [PDF]

Heffernan, N. & Koedinger, K.R. (2002). The design and formative analysis of a dialog-based tutor.  Sciences et Techniques Educatives, 9(1-2), 11-35.  [PDF]

Aleven, V., & Koedinger, K. R. (2002). An effective metacognitive strategy: Learning by doing and explaining with a computer-based Cognitive Tutor. Cognitive Science, 26(2).  [PDF]

Haverty, L. A., Koedinger, K. R., Klahr, D., & Alibali, M. W. (2000).  Solving induction problems in mathematics: Not-so-trivial pursuit. Cognitive Science, 24(2), 249-298. [PDF]

Nathan, M. J. & Koedinger, K. R. (2000). An investigation of teachers' beliefs of students' algebra development. Cognition and Instruction, 18(2), 207-235.  [PDF]

Nathan, M. J. & Koedinger, K.R.  (2000). Teachers' and researchers' beliefs of early algebra development. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 31 (2), 168-190. [PDF]

Nathan, M. J. & Koedinger, K. R. (2000). Moving beyond teachers' intuitive beliefs about algebra learning. Mathematics Teacher, 93, 218-223. [PDF]

Alibali, M. W. & Koedinger, K. R. (1999). The developmental progression from implicit to explicit knowledge: A computational approach. (Commentary on Z. Dienes & J. Perner, A theory of implicit and explicit knowledge.) Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 10, 755-756.  [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R., Suthers, D. D., & Forbus, K. D. (1999).  Component-based construction of a science learning space.  International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 10.  [PDF]

Miller, C. S., Lehman, J. F., & Koedinger, K. R. (1999).  Goals and learning in microworlds. Cognitive Science, 23, (3), 305-336. [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R., & Anderson, J. R. (1998).  Illustrating principled design:  The early evolution of a cognitive tutor for algebra symbolization.  Interactive Learning Environments, 5, 161-180. [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R., Anderson, J. R., Hadley, W. H., & Mark, M. A. (1997).  Intelligent tutoring goes to school in the big city.  International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 8, 30-43. 
[PDF]

Ritter, S. & Koedinger, K. R. (1996).  An architecture for plug-in tutoring agents. In Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, 7 (3/4), 315-347.  Charlottesville, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education. [PDF]

Anderson, J. R., Corbett, A. T., Koedinger, K. R., & Pelletier, R. (1995).  Cognitive tutors: Lessons learned.  The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 4 (2), 167-207. [PDF]

Koedinger, K.R., & Anderson, J.R. (1990).  Abstract planning and perceptual chunks: Elements of expertise in geometry. Cognitive Science, 14, 511-550. [PDF]

Streibel, M.J., Stewart, J., Koedinger, K.R., Collins, A., & Junck, J.R. (1987).  MENDEL: An intelligent tutoring system for genetics problem solving, conjecturing, and understanding.  Machine-Mediated Learning, 2, 129-160. [PDF]

Refereed Journal Papers - Submitted

Li, N., Matsuda, N., Cohen, W., & Koedinger, K. (submitted). SimStudent: An agent architecture for simulating student learning. (Under Review).

Refereed Papers in Conference Proceedings

Lomas, J.D., Forlizzi, J., Poonwala, N., Patel, N.,  Shodhan, S., Patel, K., Koedinger, K.R., Brunskill, E. (2016). Interface Design Optimization as a Multi-Armed Bandit Problem. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing System, pp. 4142-4153. ACM, New York.

Koedinger, K. R. & McLaughlin, E. A. (2016). Closing the loop with quantitative cognitive task analysis. Educational Data Mining (EDM) 2016.

Koedinger, K. R., McLaughlin, E. A., Jia, J. Z., & Bier, N. L. (2016). Is the Doer Effect a Causal Relationship?  How Can We Tell and Why It’s Important. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Learning, Analytics and Knowledge, pp.388-397.Edinburgh, United Kingdom.

Yannier, N., Koedinger, K.R., Hudson, S.E. (2015) Learning from Mixed-Reality Games: Is Shaking a Tablet as Effective as Physical Observations? In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1045-1054. [PDF] Open access

Liu, R. & Koedinger, K.R. (2015). Variations i learning rate: Student classification based on systematic residual error patterns across practice opportunities. In Proceedings of 8th International Conference on Educational Data Mining. Madrid, Spain.

Koedinger, K.R., Kim, J., Jia, J., McLaughlin, E.A., & Bier, N.L. (2015). Learning is Not a Spectator Sport: Doing is Better than Watching for Learning from a MOOC. In Proceedings of the Second (2015) ACM Conference on Learning at Scale, 111-120. [PDF] Open Access

Kaser, T., Koedinger, K.R., & Gross, M. (2014). Different parameters-same prediction: An analysis of learning curves. In Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Educational Data Mining. London, UK.

Liu, R., Koedinger, K.R., & McLaughlin, E. A. (2014). Interpreting Model Discovery and Testing Generalization to a New Dataset. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Educational Data Mining (EDM 2014).

MacLellan, C.J., Koedinger, K.R., Matsuda, N. (2014) Authoring Tutors with SimStudent: An Evaluation of Efficiency and Model Quality. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 551-560. Honolulu, HI.

Rivers, K., and Koedinger, K.R. (2014). Automating hint generation with solution space path construction. In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems.  LNCS 8474, p. 329.

 Li, N., Stampfer, E., Cohen, W., & Koedinger, K.R. (2013). General and efficient cognitive model discovery using a simulated student. In M. Knauff, N. Sebanz, M. Pauen, I. Wachsmuth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. (pp. 894-9) Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

 Stampfer, E. & Koedinger, K.R. (2013). When seeing isn't believing: Influences of prior conceptions and misconceptions. In M. Knauff, N. Sebanz, M. Pauen, I. Wachsmuth (Eds.),Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. (pp. 1384-9) Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

Zhao, H., Koedinger, K.R., & Kowalski, J. (2013). Knowledge tracing and cue contrast: Second language English grammar instruction. In M. Knauff, N. Sebanz, M. Pauen, I. Wachsmuth (Eds.), Proceedings of the 35th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. (pp. 1653-8) Austin, TX: Cognitive Science Society.

 Li, N., Tian, Y., Cohen, W., & Koedinger, K.R. (2013). Integrating perceptual learning with external world knowledge in a simulated student. In H.C. Lane, K. Yacef, J. Mostow, & P. Pavlik (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, pp. 400-410.

Koedinger, K.R., Stamper, J.C., McLaughlin, E.A., & Nixon, T. (2013). Using data-driven discovery of better student models to improve student learning.  In H.C. Lane, K. Yacef, J. Mostow, & P. Pavlik (Eds.), Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education. pp. 421-430 [PDF]

Lomas, D., Forlizzi, J., & Koedinger, K.R. (2013).  Optimizing Challenge in an Educational Game Using Large-Scale Design Experiments. In ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2013). [PDF]

Goldin, I.M., Koedinger, K.R., Aleven, V. (2012). Learner differences in hint processing. In Yacef, K., Zaïane, O., Hershkovitz, H., Yudelson, M., & Stamper, J. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Educational Data Mining, pp. 73-80. [PDF]

Koedinger, K.R., McLaughlin, E.A., & Stamper, J.C. (2012). Automated student model improvement. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Educational Data Mining. [Conference best paper.] [PDF]

Walker, E., Rummel, N., Walker, S., & Koedinger, K.R. (2012). Noticing Relevant Feedback Improves Learning in an Intelligent Tutoring System for Peer Tutoring.  In S. A. Cerri, W. J. Clancey, G. Papadourakis, & K. Panourgia (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 7315 (pp. XX-XX). Berlin: Springer. [PDF]

Lomas, D., Stamper, J.C., Muller, R., Patel, K. & Koedinger, K.R. (2012). The effects of adaptive sequencing algorithms on player engagement within an online game.  In S. A. Cerri, W. J. Clancey, G. Papadourakis, & K. Panourgia (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 7315 (pp. XX-XX). Berlin: Springer. [PDF]

Li, N., Cohen, W., Koedinger, K.R. (2012). Problem order implications for learning transfer.  In S. A. Cerri, W. J. Clancey, G. Papadourakis, & K. Panourgia (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 7315 (pp. XX-XX). Berlin: Springer. [PDF]

Li, N., Cohen, W., Koedinger, K.R. (2012). Efficient cross-domain learning of complex skills.  In S. A. Cerri, W. J. Clancey, G. Papadourakis, & K. Panourgia (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 7315 (pp. XX-XX). Berlin: Springer. [PDF]

Li, N., Cohen, W., Koedinger, K.R., & Matsuda, N. (2011). A machine learning approach for automatic student model discovery. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Educational Data Mining, pp. 31-40. [PDF]

Chi, M., Koedinger, K.R., Gordon, G., Jordan, P., & Vanlehn, K. (2011). Instructional Factors Analysis: A cognitive model for multiple instructional interventions. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Educational Data Mining, pp. 61-70. [PDF]

Nwaigwe, A. & Koedinger, K. R. (2011). The simple location heuristic is better at predicting students’ changes in error rate over time compared to the simple temporal heuristic. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Educational Data Mining, pp. 71-80. [PDF]

Koedinger, K.R., Pavlik Jr., P.I., Stamper, J.C., Nixon, T. & Ritter, S. (2011). Avoiding problem selection thrashing with conjunctive knowledge tracing. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Educational Data Mining, pp. 91-100. [PDF]

Gowda, S.M., Rowe, J.P, Baker, R.S.J.D., Chi, M., & Koedinger, K.R. (2011). Improving models of slipping, guessing, and moment-by-moment learning with estimates of skill difficulty. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Educational Data Mining, pp. 199-208. [PDF]

Walker, E., Rummel, N., & Koedinger, K.R. (2011). Using automated dialog analysis to assess peer tutoring and trigger effective support. In G. Biswas & S. Bull (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education: Springer. [PDF]

Matsuda, N., Yarzebinski, E., Keiser, V., Raizada, R., Stylianides, G., Cohen, W.W., & Koedinger, K.R. (2011). Learning by teaching simstudent – an initial classroom baseline study comparing with cognitive tutor. In G. Biswas & S. Bull (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education: Springer. [PDF]

Stamper, J. & Koedinger, K.R. (2011). Human-machine student model discovery and improvement using data. In Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education. [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R. & McLaughlin, E. A. (2010). Seeing language learning inside the math: Cognitive analysis yields transfer.  To appear in Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]

Shih, B., Koedinger, K.R., & Scheines, R. (2010). Unsupervised discovery of student strategies.  In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Educational Data Mining, pp. 201-210. [PDF]

Li, N., Cohen, W. W., & Koedinger, K. R. (2010).  A computational model of accelerated future learning through feature recognition.  To appear in Proceedings of the 10th International Conference of Intelligent Tutoring Systems.  [PDF]

Matsuda, N., Keiser, V., Raizada, R., Tu, A., Stylianides, G., Cohen, W. W., & Koedinger, K. R. (2010). Learning by Teaching SimStudent: Technical Accomplishments and an Initial Use with Students. In V. Aleven, J. Kay & J. Mostow (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (pp. 317-326). Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer.[PDF]

Roll, I., Aleven, V., & Koedinger, K. R. (2010). The invention lab: Using a hybrid of model tracing and constraint-based modeling to offer intelligent support in inquiry environments.  In V. Aleven, J. Kay & J. Mostow (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (pp. 115-124). Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer. [PDF]

Walker, E., Walker, S., Rummel, N., & Koedinger, K. R. (2010). Using problem-solving context to assess help quality in computer-mediated peer tutoring. In V. Aleven, J. Kay & J. Mostow (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (pp. 145-155). Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer. [PDF]

Wylie, R., Koedinger, K. R., & Mitamura, T. (2010). Analogies, explanations, practice:  Examining how task types affect second language grammar learning. In V. Aleven, J. Kay & J. Mostow (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (pp. 214-223). Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer. [PDF]

Roll, I., Aleven, V., & Koedinger, K. R. (2009). Helping students know ‘further’ –  Increasing flexibility of students’ knowledge using symbolic invention tasks. In Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Amsterdam, The Netherlands.  July 29-August 1, 2009.  [PDF]

Matsuda, N., Lee, A., Cohen, W. W., & Koedinger, K. R. (2009). A computational model of how learner errors arise from weak prior knowledge.  In Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Amsterdam, The Netherlands.  July 29-August 1, 2009.  [PDF]

Salden, R., Koedinger, K.R., Aleven, V., & McLaren, B.M. (2009) Does Cognitive Load Theory Account for Beneficial Effects of Worked Examples in Tutored Problem Solving? Proceedings of the 3rd International Cognitive Load Theory Conference (CLT-09). Heerlen, the Netherlands, March 2-4, 2009.

Walker, E., Rummel, N., Koedinger, K.R. (2009) Beyond Explicit Feedback: New Directions in Adaptive Collaborative Learning Support. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL-09), 552-556.  [PDF]

Walker, E., Rummel, N., Koedinger, K.R. (2009). Modeling Helping Behavior in an Intelligent Tutor for Peer Tutoring. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, (AIED09) pp. 341-348.  Amsterdam, IOS Press.  [PDF]

Ryan Shaun Joazeiro de Baker, Adriana M. J. B. de Carvalho, Jay Raspat, Vincent Aleven, Albert T. Corbett, Kenneth R. Koedinger: Educational Software Features that Encourage and Discourage "Gaming the System". Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, (AIED09) pp. 475-482.  Amsterdam , IOS Press. [Honorable Mention for the Conference Best Paper Award]  [PDF]

Pavlik Jr., P. I., Cen, H., & Koedinger, K. R. (2009). Performance Factors Analysis - A New Alternative to Knowledge Tracing. Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, (AIED09) pp. 531-538.  Amsterdam, IOS Press.  [PDF]

Pavlik Jr., P. I., Cen, H., & Koedinger, K. R. (2009). Learning factors transfer analysis: Using learning curve analysis to automatically generate domain models. In T. Barnes, M. Desmarais, C. Romero & S. Ventura (Eds.), Proceedings of the The 2nd International Conference on Educational Data Mining (pp. 121-130). Cordoba, Spain. [PDF]

Wylie, R., Koedinger, K. R., Mitamura, T. (2009). Is self-explanation always better?  The effects of adding self-explanation prompts to an English grammar tutor. In Proceedings of the 31st Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Amsterdam, The Netherlands.  July 29-August 1, 2009. [PDF]

Shih, B., Koedinger, K.R., and Scheines, R. (2008). A response time model for bottom-out hints as worked examples.  In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Educational Data Mining. 117-126 [Conference Best Paper]   [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R., Cunningham, K., & Skogsholm, A. and Leber, B. (2008).  An open repository and analysis tools for fine-grained, longitudinal learner data. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Educational Data Mining. 157-166 [PDF]

Pavlik, P. I., Cen, H., Wu, L., & Koedinger, K. R. (2008). Using item-type performance covariance to improve the skill model of an existing tutor. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Educational Data Mining. 77-86. [PDF]

Feng, M., Beck, J., Heffernan N., & Koedinger, K. R. (2008). Can an intelligent tutoring system predict math proficiency as well as a standardized test? In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Educational Data Mining, 107-116.  [PDF]

Feng, M., Heffernan, N., Beck, J., & Koedinger, K. R. (2008). Can we predict which groups of questions students will learn from? In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Educational Data Mining, 218-225. [PDF]

Cen, H., Koedinger, K. R., Junker, B. (2008). Comparing two IRT models for conjunctive skills. In B. Woolf et al. (Eds): ITS 2008, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of Intelligent Tutoring Systems, pp. 796-798. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg  [PDF]

Cui, Y., Kumar, R., Rose, C.P., & Koedinger, K. R. (2008). Story generation to accelerate math problem authoring for practice and assessment. In B. Woolf et al. (Eds): ITS 2008, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of Intelligent Tutoring Systems, pp. 790-792 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.  [PDF]

Matsuda, N., Cohen, W., Sewall, J., Lacerda, G., & Koedinger, K. R. (2008). Why tutored problem solving may be better than example study: Theoretical implications from a simulated-student study. In B. Woolf et al. (Eds.): ITS 2008, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of Intelligent Tutoring Systems, pp. 111-121  Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.  [PDF]

Pavlik, P. I., Bolster, T., Wu, S., Koedinger, K., MacWhinney, B. (2008). Using optimally selected drill practice to train basic facts.  In B. Woolf et al. (Eds.): ITS 2008, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of Intelligent Tutoring Systems, pp. 593-602 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.  [PDF]

Walker, E., Rummel, N., Koedinger, K. R. (2008).  To Tutor the tutor: Adaptive domain support for peer tutoring. In B. Woolf et al. (Eds): ITS 2008, Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of Intelligent Tutoring Systems, pp. 626-635  Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. [PDF]

Booth, J.L., & Koedinger, K.R. (2008). Key misconceptions in algebraic problem solving. In B.C. Love, K. McRae, & V. M. Sloutsky (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. 571-576   [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R., Pavlik Jr., P. I., McLaren, B. M., & Aleven, V. (2008).  Is it better to give than to receive?   The assistance dilemma as a fundamental unsolved problem in the cognitive science of learning and instruction.  In B.C. Love, K. McRae, & V. M. Sloutsky (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. (pp. 2155-2160).  [PDF]

McLaren, B.M., Lim, S., & Koedinger, K.R. (2008). When and how often should worked examples be given to students? New results and a summary of the Current state of research. In B. C. Love, K. McRae, & V. M. Sloutsky (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2176-2181).  [PDF]

McLaren, B.M., Lim, S., & Koedinger, K.R. (2008).  When is Assistance Helpful to Learning?  Results in Combining Worked Examples and Intelligent Tutoring.  In B. Woolf, E. Aimeur, R. Nkambou, S. Lajoie (Eds), Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 5091 (pp. 677-680). Berlin: Springer.[PDF]

Cen, H., Koedinger, K.R., & Junker, B. (2007). Is over practice necessary? – improving learning efficiency with the Cognitive Tutor through educational data mining. In Luckin, R., Koedinger, K. R. & Greer, J. (Eds.).  Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED2007), 511-518. Amsterdam, IOS Press. [PDF]

Matsuda, N., Cohen, W., Sewall, J., Lacerda, G., & Koedinger, K. R. (2007) Predicting students’ performance with SimStudent: Learning cognitive skills from observation. In R. Lukin, K.R. Koedinger, and J. Greer, (Eds.) Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, (AIED07) pp.467-476.  Amsterdam, IOS Press. [PDF]

Matsuda, N., Cohen, W., Sewall, J., Lacerda, G., & Koedinger, K. R. (2007) Evaluating a simulated student using real students’ data for training and testing. In  C. Conati,  K. McCoy, and G. Paliouras, (Eds.) Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on User Modeling, UM2007, LNAI 4511, pp. 107-116 Berlin: Springer-Verlag.  [PDF]

McLaren, B. M., Lim, S., Yaron, D., Koedinger, K.R. (2007) Can a polite intelligent tutoring system lead to improved learning outside of the lab?  In R. Lukin, K.R. Koedinger, and J. Greer, (Eds.) Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, (AIED07) pp.433-440.  Amsterdam, IOS Press.  [PDF]

Nwaigwe, A., Koedinger, K.R., VanLehn, K., Hausmann, R.,& Weinstein, A. (2007). Exploring alternative methods for error attribution in learning curves analysis in Intelligent Tutoring Systems. In Luckin, R., Koedinger, K. R. & Greer, J. (Eds.). Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED2007), 246-253. Amsterdam, IOS Press. [PDF]

VanLehn, K., Koedinger, K.R., Skogsholm, A., Nwaigwe, A., Hausmann, R.G.M., Weinstein, A., & Billings, B. (2007). What’s in a step? Toward general, abstract representations of tutoring system log data.  In  C.Conati,  K. McCoy, and G. Paliouras, (Eds.) Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on User Modeling, UM2007, LNAI 4511, pp. 455-459  Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [PDF]

Roll, I., Aleven, V. McLaren, B. M., & Koedinger, K.R. (2007) Can help seeking be tutored? Searching for the secret sauce of metacognitive tutoring.  In R. Lukin, K.R. Koedinger, and J. Greer, (Eds.) Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, (AIED07) pp.203-210  Amsterdam, IOS Press.  [PDF]

Walker, E., McLaren, B.M., Rummel, N., & Koedinger, K. R. (2007) Who says three’s a crowd? using a cognitive tutor to support peer tutoring.  In R. Lukin, K.R. Koedinger, and J. Greer, (Eds.) Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, (AIED07) pp.399-406.  Amsterdam, IOS Press. [PDF]

Pavlik Jr., P. I., Presson, N., & Koedinger, K. R. (2007). Optimizing knowledge component learning using a dynamic structural model of practice. In R. Lewis & T. Polk (Eds.) Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference of Cognitive Modeling.  [PDF]

Baker, R., Corbett, A., Koedinger, K. R., Evenson, S., Roll, I., Wagner, A., Naim, M., Raspat, J., Baker, D., & Beck, J. (2006). Adapting to when students game an intelligent tutoring system. In M. Ikeda, K. D. Ashley, T.-W. Chan (Eds.) Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 392-401. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [Conference Best Paper Award] [PDF]

Baker, R., Corbett, A., Koedinger, K. R., & Roll, I. (2006).  Generalizing detection of gaming the system across a tutoring curriculum. In M. Ikeda, K. D. Ashley, T.-W. Chan (Eds.) Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 402-411. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [PDF]

Feng, M., Heffernan, N. T., & Koedinger, K. R. (2006). Predicting state test scores better with intelligent tutoring systems: Developing metrics to measure assistance required. In M. Ikeda, K. D. Ashley, T.-W. Chan (Eds.) Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 31-40. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [PDF]

Aleven, V., McLaren, B. M., Sewall, J., & Koedinger, K. R. (2006). The Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools (CTAT): Preliminary evaluation of efficiency gains. In M. Ikeda, K. D. Ashley, T.-W. Chan (Eds.) Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 61-70. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.  [PDF]

Aleven, V., Sewall, J., McLaren, B. M., & Koedinger, K. R. (2006). Rapid authoring of intelligent tutors for real-world and experimental use. In Kinshuk, R. Koper, P. Kommers, P. Kirschner, D. G. Sampson, & W. Didderen (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (ICALT 2006), (pp. 847-851). Los Alamitos, CA: IEEE Computer Society.  [PDF]

Cen, H., Koedinger, K. R., & Junker, B. (2006).  Learning Factors Analysis: A general method for cognitive model evaluation and improvement. In M. Ikeda, K. D. Ashley, T.-W. Chan (Eds.) Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 164-175. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [PDF]

McLaren, B. M., Lim, S., Gagnon, F., Yaron, D., and Koedinger, K. R. (2006).  Studying the effects of personalized language and worked examples in the context of a web-based intelligent tutor. In M. Ikeda, K. D. Ashley, T.-W. Chan (Eds.) Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 318-328. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.  [PDF]

Roll, I., Aleven, V., McLaren, B. M., Ryu, E., Baker, R., Koedinger, K. R. (2006).  The help tutor: Does metacognitive feedback improve students' help-seeking actions, skills and learning? In M. Ikeda, K. D. Ashley, T.-W. Chan (Eds.) Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 360-369. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [PDF]

Walker, E., Koedinger, K. R., McLaren, B. M., Rummel, N. (2006). Cognitive tutors as research platforms: Extending an established tutoring system for collaborative and metacognitive experimentation. In M. Ikeda, K. D. Ashley, T.-W. Chan (Eds.) Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 207-216. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.  [PDF]

Roll, I., Ryu, E., Sewall, J., Leber, B., McLaren, B. M., Aleven, V., Koedinger, K.R. (2006). Towards teaching metacognition: supporting spontaneous self-assessment. In M. Ikeda, K. D. Ashley, T.-W. Chan (Eds.) Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 738-740. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.  [PDF]

Feng, M., Heffernan, N.T, Koedinger, K.R. (2006).  Addressing the Testing Challenge with a Web-Based E-Assessment System that Tutors as it Assesses. In Proceedings of the 15th International World Wide Web Conference, 307-316. ACM Press: New York, NY. 2006. ISBN:1-59593-332-9.  [PDF]

Anthony, L., Yang, J., & Koedinger, K. R. (2005) "Evaluation of Multimodal Input for Entering Mathematical Equations on the Computer." ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2005), Portland, OR, 4 Apr 2005, pp. 1184-1187. [PDF]

Matsuda, N., Cohen, W. W., & Koedinger, K. R. (2005). Building Cognitive Tutors with Programming by Demonstration. In S. Kramer & B. Pfahringer (Eds.), Technical report: TUM-I0510 (Proceedings of the International Conference on Inductive Logic Programming) (pp. 41-46): Institut fur Informatik, Technische Universitat Munchen.  [PDF]

Roll, R., Baker, R., Aleven, V., McLaren, B., Koedinger, K. R. (2005). Modeling students' metacognitive errors in two intelligent tutoring systems. Proceedings of User Modeling 2005, 367-376.  [PDF]

Baker, R.S., Corbett, A., Koedinger, K. R., Roll, I. (2005). Detecting when students game the system, across tutor subjects and classroom cohorts. Proceedings of User Modeling 2005, 220-224. [PDF]

Aleven, V., McLaren, B., Roll, I., Ryu, E. & Koedinger K.R. (2005). An architecture to combine meta-cognitive and cognitive tutoring: Pilot testing the Help Tutor. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED2005). Amsterdam, IOS Press.  [PDF]

Baker, R.S., Roll, I., Corbett, A.T., Koedinger, K.R. (2005). Do performance goals lead students to game the system? Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED2005), 57-64. Amsterdam, IOS Press. [PDF]

Martin, B., Mitrovic, T., Mathan, S., & Koedinger, K.R. (2005). On using learning curves to evaluate ITS: Automatic and semi-automatic skill coding with a view towards supporting on-line assessment. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED2005). Amsterdam, IOS Press. [PDF]

Razzaq, L., Feng, M., Nuzzo-Jones, G., Heffernan, N.T., Koedinger, K. R., Junker, B., Ritter, S., Knight, A., Aniszczyk, C., Choksey, S., Livak, T., Mercado, E., Turner, T.E., Upalekar. R, Walonoski, J.A., Macasek. M.A., Rasmussen, K.P. (2005).  The Assistment Project: Blending Assessment and Assisting.  Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED2005). Amsterdam, IOS Press.  [PDF]

Rose, C., P., Cohen, W., Donmez, P., Knight, A., Gweon, G., Heffernan, N., Junker, B. & Koedinger, K.R. (2005). Automatic and semi-automatic skill coding with a view towards supporting on-line assessment. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED2005). Amsterdam, IOS Press. [PDF]

Turner, T.E., Macasek, M.A., Nuzzo-Jones, G., Heffernan, N.T., & Koedinger, K. R. (2005). The Assistment Builder: A rapid development tool for ITS. Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED2005). Amsterdam, IOS Press.  [PDF]

Aleven, V., McLaren, B., Roll, I., & Koedinger, K. R. (2004). Toward tutoring help seeking. In J.C. Lester, R.M. Vicari, & F. Parguacu (Eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 227-239. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.  [Conference Best Paper Award.]  [PDF]

Aleven, V., Ogan, A., Torrey, C., & Koedinger, K. R. (2004). Evaluating the effectiveness of a tutorial dialogue system for self-explanation. In J.C. Lester, R.M. Vicari, & F. Parguacu (Eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.  [PDF]

Anthony, L., Corbett, A. T., Wagner, A. Z., Stevens, S. M., & Koedinger, K. R. (2004). Student question-asking patterns in an intelligent algebra tutor. In J.C. Lester, R.M. Vicari, & F. Parguacu (Eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 455-467. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [PDF]

Baker, R. S., Corbett, A. T., & Koedinger, K. R.. (2004). Detecting student misuse of Intelligent Tutoring Systems. In J.C. Lester, R.M. Vicari, & F. Parguacu (Eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 531-540. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [PDF]

Baker, R. S., Wagner, A. Z., Corbett, A. T., & Koedinger, K. R. (2004). The social role of technical personnel in the deployment of Intelligent Tutoring Systems. In J.C. Lester, R.M. Vicari, & F. Parguacu (Eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.  [PDF]

Croteau, E., Heffernan, N. T.,& Koedinger, K. R., (2004). Why are algebra word problems difficult?  Using tutorial log files and the power law of learning to select the best fitting cognitive model. In J.C. Lester, R.M. Vicari, & F. Parguacu (Eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 240-250. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R., Aleven, V., Heffernan, N., McLaren, B., & Hockenberry, M. (2004). Opening the door to non-programmers: Authoring intelligent tutor behavior by demonstration. In J.C. Lester, R.M. Vicari, & F. Parguacu (Eds.) Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 162-174. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [PDF]

Chang, N. M., Koedinger, K. R., & Lovett, M. C. (2004). The impact of spurious correlations on students' problem-solving. In Proceedings of the Twenty-Sixth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 228-233. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.  [PDF]

Baker, R. S., Corbett, A.T., Koedinger, K.R. (2004). Learning to distinguish between representations of data: A cognitive tutor that uses contrasting cases. Proceedings of the International Conference of the Learning Sciences, 58-65. [PDF]

Baker, R. S., Corbett, A.T., Koedinger, K.R., Wagner, A.Z. (2004). Off-task behavior in the Cognitive Tutor classroom: When students "game the system". Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004: Computer-Human Interaction, 383-390. [PDF]

John, B., Prevas, K., Salvucci, D., & Koedinger, K. R. (2004). Predictive Human Performance Modeling Made Easy.  Proceedings of CHI, 2004 (Vienna, Austria, April 24-29, 2004) ACM, New York  [PDF]

Mitrovic, A., Koedinger, K. R., & Martin, B. (2003). A comparative analysis of cognitive tutoring and constraint-based modeling.  In Brusilovsky, P., Corbett, A., & de Rosis, F. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on User Modeling (pp. 313-322). Berlin, Springer-Verlag.  [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R., Aleven, V., & Heffernan, N. (2003). Toward a rapid development environment for Cognitive Tutors. In U. Hoppe, F. Verdejo, & J. Kay (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence in Education: Shaping the Future of Learning through Intelligent Technologies, Proceedings of AI-ED 2003 (pp. 455-457). Amsterdam, IOS Press. [PDF]

 Aleven, V., Koedinger, K. R., & Popescu, O.(2003). A Tutorial Dialog System to Support Self-Explanation: Evaluation and Open Questions. In U.Hoppe, F. Verdejo, & J. Kay (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, AI-ED 2003 (pp. 39-46). Amsterdam: IOS Press. [Nominated as a best conference paper.] [PDF]

Mathan, S. & Koedinger, K. R. (2003). Recasting the feedback debate: Benefits of tutoring error detection and correction skills. In U. Hoppe, F. Verdejo, & J. Kay (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence in Education: Shaping the Future of Learning through Intelligent Technologies, Proceedings of AI-ED 2003 (pp. 13-18). Amsterdam, IOS Press. [Best Student Paper Award.]  [PDF]

Baker, R. S., Corbett, A. T., Koedinger, K. R. & Schneider, M. P. (2003). A formative evaluation of a tutor for scatterplot generation: Evidence on difficulty factors. In U. Hoppe, F. Verdejo, & J. Kay (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence in Education: Shaping the Future of Learning through Intelligent Technologies, Proceedings of AI-ED 2003 (pp. 107-114). Amsterdam, IOS Press. [PDF]

Chang, N.M., Koedinger, K.R., & Lovett, M.C. (2003). Learning spurious correlations instead of deeper relations. In R. Alterman & D. Kirsh (Eds.), Proceedings of the 25th Cognitive Science Society. Boston, MA: Cognitive Science Society.  [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R. (2002). Toward evidence for instructional design principles: Examples from Cognitive Tutor Math 6. In D. S. Mewborn, P. Sztajn, D. Y. White, H. G. Wiegel, R. L. Bryant, & K. Nooney (Eds.), Proceedings of twenty-fourth annual meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, Vol. 1, pp. 21-49. Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education. [PDF]

Nathan, M. J., Stephens, A. C., Masarik, D. K., Alibali, M. W., & Koedinger, K. R. (2002). Representational fluency in middle school: A classroom based study. In Proceedings of PME-NA XXXIII (the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education).  [PDF]

Rittle-Johnson, B., & Koedinger, K.R. (2002). Comparing instructional strategies for integrating conceptual and procedural knowledge. In Proceedings of PME-NA XXXIII (the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education), pp. 969-978. [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R. & Terao, A. (2002). A cognitive task analysis of using pictures to support pre-algebraic reasoning.  In C. D. Schunn & W. Gray (Eds.), Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 542-547. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.  [PDF]

Aleven, V., Popescu, O., & Koedinger, K. R. (2002). Pilot-testing a tutorial dialogue system that supports self-explanation.  In S.A. Cerri, G. Gouarderes, & F. Paraguacu (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 344-354. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.  [PDF]

Heffernan, N., & Koedinger, K. R. (2002). An intelligent tutoring system incorporating a model of an experienced human tutor. In S.A. Cerri, G. Gouarderes, & F. Paraguacu (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 596-608. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.  [PDF]

MacLaren, B. & Koedinger, K. R. (2002). When and why does mastery learning work: Instructional experiments with ACT-R “SimStudents”. In S.A. Cerri, G. Gouarderes, & F. Paraguacu (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 355-366. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.  [PDF]

Mathan, S., & Koedinger, K. R. (2002). An empirical assessment of comprehension fostering features in an intelligent tutoring system. In S.A. Cerri, G. Gouarderes, & F. Paraguacu (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 330-343. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.  [PDF]

Baker, R.S., Corbett, A.T., Koedinger, K.R. (2001). Toward a model of learning data representations. In Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, (pp. 45-50). Mahwah,NJ: Erlbaum. [PDF]

Rittle-Johnson, B. & Koedinger, K. R. (2001). Using cognitive models to guide instructional design: The case of fraction division. In Proceedings of the Twenty-Third Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, (pp. 857-862). Mahwah,NJ: Erlbaum.  [PDF]

Aleven V., Popescu, O., & Koedinger, K. R. (2001). Towards tutorial dialog to support self-explanation: Adding natural language understanding to a cognitive tutor. In J. D. Moore, C. L. Redfield, & W. L. Johnson (Eds.), Artificial Intelligence in Education: AI-ED in the Wired and Wireless Future, Proceedings of AI-ED 2001 (pp. 246-255). Amsterdam, IOS Press. [PDF]

Nathan, M. J., Koedinger, K. R., & Alibali, M. W. (2001). Expert blind spot: when content knowledge eclipses pedagogical content knowledge. In L. Chen et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Cognitive Science. (pp. 644-648). Beijing, China : USTC Press.[PDF]

Mathan, S., Koedinger, K. R., Corbett, A., & Hyndman, A. (2000). Effective strategies for bridging gulfs between users and computer systems.  In Proceedings of HCI-Aero 2000: International Conference on Human Computer Interaction in Aeronautics. (pp 197 – 202). Toulouse, France. [PDF]

Aleven, V., & Koedinger, K.R. (2000). Limitations of student control: Do students know when they need help? In Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, ITS 2000, edited by G. Gauthier, C. Frasson, and K. VanLehn, 292-303. Berlin: Springer Verlag. [Conference best paper.] [PDF]

Aleven, V., Koedinger, K. R., & Cross, K. (1999). Tutoring answer-explanation fosters learning with understanding.   In Lajoie, S. P. & Vivet, M. (Eds.)  Artificial Intelligence in Education, Open Learning Environments: New Computational Technologies to Support Learning, Exploration, and Collaboration, Proceedings of AIED-99, (pp. 199-206).  Amsterdam: IOS Press.  [PDF]

Mark, M. A., & Koedinger, K. R. (1999).  Strategic support of algebraic expression writing.  In Kay, J. (Ed.) Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on User Modeling, (pp. 149-158).  SpringerWein, New York. [PDF]

Nhouyvanisvong, A. & Koedinger, K. R. (1998). Goal specificity and learning: Reinterpretation of the data and cognitive theory.  In Proceedings of  the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, (pp. 764-769).  Mahwah,NJ: Erlbaum.  [PDF]

Heffernan, N. & Koedinger, K. R. (1998). A developmental model for algebra symbolization:  The results of a difficulty factors assessment.  In Gernsbacher, M. A. & Derry, S. J. (Eds.) Proceedings of  the Twentieth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, (pp. 484-489).  Mahwah,NJ: Erlbaum.  [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R., Suthers, D. D., & Forbus, K. D. (1998).  Component-based construction of a science learning space.  In Goettl, B. P., Halff, H. M., Redfield, C. L., & Shute, V. J. (Eds.) Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference, (pp. 166-175).  Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1452.  Berlin: Springer-Verlag.  [PDF]

Mark, M. A., Koedinger, K. R., & Hadley, W. S. (1998).  Elaborating models of algebraic expression writing. In Goettl, B. P., Halff, H. M., Redfield, C. L., & Shute, V. J. (Eds.) Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference, (pp. 524-533).  Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1452.  Berlin: Springer-Verlag. [PDF]

Aleven, V., Koedinger, K. R., Sinclair, H. C., & Snyder, J.  (1998).  Combatting shallow learning in a tutor for geometry problem solving. In Goettl, B. P., Halff, H. M., Redfield, C. L., & Shute, V. J. (Eds.) Intelligent Tutoring Systems, Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference. (pp. 364-373).  Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 1452.  Berlin: Springer-Verlag.  [PDF]

Koedinger, K.R., & MacLaren, B. A. (1997).  Implicit strategies and errors in an improved model of early algebra problem solving.  In Shafto, M. G. & Langley, P. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, (pp. 382-387).  Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. [PDF]

Heffernan, N. & Koedinger, K. R. (1997).  The composition effect in symbolizing: The role of symbol production vs. text comprehension.  In Shafto, M. G. & Langley, P. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, (pp. 307-312).  Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. [Marr prize winner for best student paper.]  [PDF]

Nathan, M. J., Koedinger, K.R., & Tabachneck, H. J. M.  (1997). Teachers' and researchers' beliefs of early algebra development.  In Shafto, M. G. & Langley, P. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Nineteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, (pp. 554-559).  Hillsdale, NJ:  Erlbaum.  [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R., & Sueker, E. L. F. (1996).  PAT goes to college: Evaluating a cognitive tutor for developmental mathematics.  In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on the Learning Sciences, (pp. 180-187).  Charlottesville, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.  [PDF]

MacLaren, B. A., & Koedinger, K. R. (1996).  Toward a dynamic model of early algebra acquisition.  In Proceedings of the European Conference on AI in Education, (pp. 38-44). Lisbon, Portugal. [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R., Anderson, J. R., Hadley, W. H., & Mark, M. A. (1995).  Intelligent tutoring goes to school in the big city.  In Proceedings of the 7th World Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, (pp. 421-428).  Charlottesville, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.  [Best conference paper award.]  [PDF]

Ritter, S. & Koedinger, K. R. (1995).  Towards lightweight tutoring agents. In Proceedings of the 7th World Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, (pp. 91-98).  Charlottesville, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.  [PDF]

Tabachneck, H. J. M., Koedinger, K. R., & Nathan, M. J. (1995).  A cognitive analysis of the task demands of early algebra.  In Moore, J. D. & Lehman, J. F. (Eds.) Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, (pp. 397-402).  Mahwah, NJ:  Erlbaum.  [PDF]

Tabachneck, H. J. M., Koedinger, K. R., & Nathan, M. J. (1994).  Toward a theoretical account of strategy use and sense-making in mathematics problem solving.  In Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, (pp. 836-841).  Hillsdale, NJ:  Erlbaum.  [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R. & Anderson, J. R. (1993).  Effective use of intelligent software in high school math classrooms.  In Proceedings of the World Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, (pp. 241-248).  Charlottesville, VA: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.  [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R. (1992).  The nature of geometry expertise:  A challenge for speedup learning.  In the proceedings of the Machine Learning workshop on Knowledge Compilation and Speedup Learning, Aberdeen, Scotland, July.  [PDF]

Koedinger, K.R. (1991).  On the design of novel notations and actions to facilitate thinking and learning.  In Proceedings of the International Conference on the Learning Sciences, (pp. 266-273).  Charlottesville, VA:  Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education. [PDF]

Koedinger, K.R., & Anderson, J.R. (1991).  Interaction of deductive and inductive reasoning strategies in geometry novices.  In Proceedings of the Thirteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. [PDF]

Koedinger, K.R., & Anderson, J.R. (1989).  Perceptual chunks in geometry problem solving: A challenge to theories of skill acquisition.  In Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. [PDF]

Refereed Conference Papers

 A Canonicalizing Model for Building Programming Tutors (to Intelligent Tutoring Systems ’12, YRT paper)

Stampfer, E., & Koedinger, K.R. (2012) Tradeoffs between Immediate and Future Learning. Presented at the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction Special Interest Groups 6&7 Conference. Bari, Italy.

Lomas, D., Ching, D., Stampfer, E., & Koedinger, K. (2012). “Battleship Numberline”: A Digital Game for Improving Estimation Accuracy on Fraction Number Lines. Proceedings of the 2012 meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Vancouver. [PDF]

Gobert, J.D. & Koedinger, K.R. (2011).  Using model-tracing to conduct performance assessment of students’ inquiry skills within a microworld. Paper presented at the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness (SREE) [PDF]

Koedinger, K.R. (2011). Bridging the lab and the field with in vivo experimentation. Paper presented at the Society for Research on Educational Effectiveness (SREE).

Yudelson, M., Pavlik, P.I., & Koedinger, K. R. (2011). Towards better understanding of transfer in cognitive models of practice.  In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Educational Data Mining, pp. 373-374. [PDF]

Koedinger, K.R. (2011). Scaling up and down: Toward a two-way street between science and practice.  In the symposium on Learning Research and Educational Practice: How can we make better connections.  American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).

Koedinger, K.R., & Stamper, J. (2010). A data driven approach to the discovery of better cognitive models. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Educational Data Mining. [PDF]

Feng, M., Heffernan, N.T., & Koedinger, K.R.  (2010). Using data mining findings to aid searching for better cognitive models.  In V. Aleven, J. Kay & J. Mostow (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (pp. 368-370). Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer. [PDF]

Li, N., Cohen, W. W., & Koedinger, K. R. (2010).  A computational model of accelerated future learning through feature recognition. In V. Aleven, J. Kay & J. Mostow (Eds.), Proceedings of the International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (pp. 368-370). Heidelberg, Berlin: Springer. [PDF]

Booth, J.L., Paré-Blagoev, J. & Koedinger, K.R. (2010).  Transforming equation-solving assignments to improve algebra learning: A collaboration with the SERP-MSAN Partnership.  Paper to be presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association

Booth, J.L., Koedinger, K.R. (2009). Facilitating the Diagrammatic Advantage for Algebraic Word Problems.  Paper presented at AERA, 2009.

Koedinger, K.R. (2009). “Is abstraction better than concreteness?” is the wrong question. Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development in Boston, MA.

VanLehn, K. & Koedinger, K. R. (2007). In vivo experimentation for understanding robust learning: Pros and cons.  Symposium at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association.

Baker R.S., Corbett A.T., Koedinger K.R.  (2002). Distinct errors arising from a single misconception.  Poster at the Twenty-Forth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. [PDF]

Baker R.S., Corbett A.T., Koedinger K.R.  (2002). The resilience of overgeneralization of knowledge about data representations. Paper prepared for the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association Conference, New Orleans. [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R. & Cross, K. (2000).  Making informed decisions in educational technology design: Toward meta-cognitive support in a cognitive tutor for geometry.  Presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.  [PDF]

Corbett, A., Koedinger, K. R., & Anderson, J. R. (1999).  Intelligent computer tutors: Out of the research lab and into the classroom. Paper prepared for the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Canada.

Koedinger, K. R. & Alibali, M. W. (1999).  A developmental model of algebra problem solving: Trade-offs between grounded and abstract representations.  Paper prepared for the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Canada.  [PDF]

Shapiro, L., Sueker, E. & Koedinger, K. (1998).  Quantitative Literacy Developmental Algebra.  Presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA.

Verzoni, K. A. & Koedinger, K. R. (1997).  Student learning of negative number:  A classroom study and difficulty factors assessment.   Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL. [PDF]

Nathan,  M. J. , Koedinger, K.R., & Tabachneck, H. J. M. (1996). Difficulty factors in arithmetic and algebra: The disparity of teachers' beliefs and students' performances.  Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York, NY.  [PDF]

Koedinger, K.R., & Tabachneck, H.J.M. (1995).  Verbal reasoning as a critical component in early algebra.  Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA.  [PDF]

Koedinger, K.R. (1994).  Conjecturing and argumentation in high school geometry students.  Presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. [PDF]

Koedinger, K.R., & Tabachneck, H.J.M. (1994).  Two strategies are better than one:  Multiple strategy use in word problem solving.  Presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA. [PDF]

Koedinger, K.R. (1989a).  An improved ideal student model for geometry proof problem solving.  Presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA.

Lehrer, R., & Koedinger, K.R. (1988).  Conceptual change and fuzzy induction.  Presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, LA.

Streibel, M.J., Stewart, J., Collins, A., & Koedinger, K.R. (1986).  On the design of an intelligent, advice-giving tutorial microcomputer system for undergraduate genetics problem-solving.  Presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA.

UnRefereed Conference/Workshop Presentations and White Papers

Koedinger, K. R., Matsuda, N., MacLellan, C.J. & McLaughlin, E. A. (2015). Methods for Evaluating Simulated Learners: Examples from SimStudent. In J. Boticario & K. Muldner (Eds.), Proceedings of the Workshops at the 17th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, AIED 2015 (Vol. 5, pp. 45-54). Aachen: CEUR-WS.org.

Li, N., Cohen, W., & Koedinger, K. (2012). Integrating perceptual representation learning and skill learning in a simulated student. Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Development and Learning /EpiRob. San Diego, CA [PDF].

Li, N., Schreiber, A., Cohen, W., & Koedinger, K. (2012). Automated creation of intelligent tutoring to support personalized online learning. Proceedings of NIPS Workshop on Personalizing Education with Machine Learning. Lake Tahoe, CA. [PDF]

 Li, N., Cohen, W., & Koedinger, K. (2010). Integrating transfer learning in synthetic students. Proceedings of AAAI10 Student Abstract and Poster Program. Atlanta, GA. [PDF]  

Koedinger, K.R. (2010). Physical symbols for powerful reasoning.  In the Symposium on Balancing Internal and External Cognition: A Learning Process. 32nd Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society.

Baker, R., de Carvalho, A., Raspat, J., Aleven, V., Corbett, A., Koedinger, K.R. (to appear). Using Taxonomies and Educational Data Mining to Understand How Educational Software Design Impacts Gaming the System. Symposium presentation at American Educational Research Association.

Baker, R., de Carvalho, A., Raspat, J., Aleven, V., Corbett, A., Koedinger, K., Cocea, Hershkovitz (to appear) Educational Data Mining Methods For Studying Student Behaviors Minute by Minute Across an Entire School Year. Symposium presentation at International Conference of the Learning Sciences.

Booth, J.L., Koedinger, K.R., & Siegler, R.S. (2008, August). Using self-explanation to improve algebra learning. Poster to be presented at the 30th annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society in Washington, DC.

Anthony, L.A., Yang, J., Koedinger, K.R. (2009) Interspersing annotated worked examples in algebra problem solving.  Presented as part of "In Vivo Experimentation on Worked Examples Across Domains" Symposium at EARLI 2009

Koedinger, K.R. (2009) Fostering Learning in the Networked World:  Presenting the 21st-Century Cyber Learning Opportunity and Challenge for the National Science Foundation.  SIG-Advanced Technologies for Learning. AERA symposium, 2009. [pubs\nsf08204.pdf]

McLaren, B.M., Koedinger, K.R. (2009) In vivo learning experiences with a stoichiometry tutor: Worked examples lead to more efficient learning.  Presented as part of "In Vivo Experimentation on Worked Examples Across Domains" Symposium at EARLI 2009.

Walker, E., Rummel, N., Koedinger, K.R. (2009) The influence of correct and erroneous worked examples on learning from peer tutoring. As part of the Symposium "In Vivo experimentation on worked examples across domains", EARLI 2009.

Wylie, R., Koedinger, K.R., Mitamura, T. (2009) Practice makes Perfect?  Structuring Practice Opportunities for Learning in an ESL Grammar Tutor. Computer Assisted Language Instruction Consortium (CALICO). March 10-14, 2009.

Wylie, R., Koedinger, K.R., Mitamura, T. (2009) Self-Explaining Language: Effects of Adding Self-Explanation Prompts to an ESL Grammar Tutor.  Presented as part of "In Vivo Experimentation on Self-Explanations Across Domains" Symposium at European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction (EARLI), August 25-29, 2009.

Pavlik, P.I., Koedinger, K.R. (2009) Understanding the Advantages of Retrieval for Long-term Retention Using Modeling. Poster presented at the 50th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Boston, MA.

Baker, R.S.J.d., de Carvalho, A.M.J.A., Raspat, J., Aleven, V., Corbett, A.T., Koedinger, K.R. (2009) Educational Software Features that Encourage and Discourage "Gaming the System". Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education, 475-482.  [PDF]

Booth, J.L., Koedinger, K.R., & Siegler, R.S. (2007, August). The effect of prior conceptual knowledge on procedural performance and learning in algebra. Poster presented at the 29th annual meeting of the Cognitive Science Society in Nashville, TN.  [PDF]

Booth, J. L., Koedinger, K. R., & Siegler, R. S. (2007a). The effect of prior conceptual knowledge on procedural performance and learning in algebra. Abstract in D. S. McNamara & J. G. Trafton (Eds.), Proceedings of the 29th Annual Cognitive Science Society (pp. 137-142). Austin, Texas: Cognitive Science Society.

Booth, J. L., Koedinger, K. R., & Siegler, R. S. (2007b). The effect of corrective and typical self-explanation on algebraic problem solving. Poster presented at the Science of Learning Centers Awardee’s Meeting in Washington, DC, October, 2007.

Anthony, L., Yang, J., and Koedinger, K.R. (2007) Benefits of Handwritten Input for Students Learning Algebra Equation Solving.  In  Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED2007), 521-523. Amsterdam, IOS Press  [PDF]

Shih, B., Koedinger, K.R., and Scheines, R. (2007) Optimizing Student Models for Causality. In Proceedings of 13th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIED2007), 644-646. Amsterdam, IOS Press [PDF]

Kao, Y. S., Roll, I., Koedinger, K. R. (2007, August). Sources of difficulty in geometry area problem solving.  Poster presented at the 19th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, Nashville, TN 

Matsuda, N., Cohen, W. W., & Koedinger, K. R. (2005). Applying Programming by Demonstration in an Intelligent Authoring Tool for Cognitive Tutors. In AAAI Workshop on Human Comprehensible Machine Learning (Technical Report WS-05-04) (pp. 1-8). Menlo Park, CA: AAAI association.  [PDF]

Cen, H., Koedinger, K. R., & Junker, B. (2005).  Automating Cognitive Model Improvement by A* Search and Logistic Regression.  In Proceedings of AAAI'05 workshop on Educational Data Mining.  [PDF]

Feng, M., Heffernan, N. T., & Koedinger, K. R. (2005). Looking for Sources of Error in Predicting Student's Knowledge. In Proceedings of AAAI'05 workshop on Educational Data Mining. [PDF]

McLaren, B. M., Walker, E., Koedinger, K., Rummel, N., Spada, H., and Kalchman, M. (2005). Improving Algebra Learning and Collaboration through Collaborative Extensions to the Algebra Cognitive Tutor. Presented at the Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL-05), Taipei, Taiwan in May/June 2005. [PDF]

Turner, T.E., Macasek, M.A., Nuzzo-Jones, G., Heffernan, N..T, Koedinger, K. (2005). The Assistment Builder: A Rapid Development Tool for ITS. Poster in the 12th Annual Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education 2005 Workshop on Adaptive Systems for Web-Based Education: Tools and Reusability, Amsterdam  [PDF]

McLaren, B. M., Koedinger, K. R., Schneider, M., Harrer, A., & Bollen, L.   (2004). Bootstrapping Novice Data: Semi-Automated Tutor Authoring Using Student Log Files. In the Proceedings of the Workshop on Analyzing Student-Tutor Interaction Logs to Improve Educational Outcomes, Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS-2004), August 2004.  [PDF

McLaren, B. M., Koedinger, K. R., Schneider, M., Harrer, A., and Bollen, L. (2004). Towards Cognitive Tutoring in a Collaborative, Web-based environment. In M. Matera, S. Comai (Eds.), Engineering Advanced Web Applications: Proceedings of Workshops in Connection with the 4th International Conference on Web Engineering (pp. 167-179). Princeton: Rinton Press. [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R. & Mathan, S. (2004).  Distinguishing qualitatively different kinds of learning using log files and learning curves.  In the Working Notes of the ITS2004 Workshop on Analyzing Student-Tutor Interaction Logs to Improve Educational Outcomes. [PDF]

McLaren, B. M., Koedinger, K. R., Schneider, Harrer, A., & Bollen, L. (2004).  Bootstrapping novice data: Semi-automated tutor authoring using student log files.  In the Working Notes of the ITS2004 Workshop on Analyzing Student-Tutor Interaction Logs to Improve Educational Outcomes. [PDF]

Cohen, J., Casey, B. J., Munakata, Y., O'Reilly, R. & Koedinger, K. R. (2002). Moving to the "front" of the class: Prefrontal cortex, development and learning.  35th Winter Conference on Brain Research.  January 26 - February 2, 2002, Snowmass Village, Colorado.

Rittle-Johnson, B. & Koedinger, K. R. (2001). Concepts, procedures & context: Difficulty factors for learning fraction arithmetic. Poster presented at the Biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Minneapolis, MN.

Aleven, V., Popescu, O., & Koedinger, K. R. (2001). A tutorial dialogue system with knowledge-based understanding and classification of student explanations. In the Working Notes of the 2nd IJCAI Workshop on Knowledge And Reasoning In Practical Dialogue Systems, August 5, 2001, Seattle. [PDF]

Aleven V., Popescu, O.  & Koedinger, K. R. (2001). Pedagogical content knowledge in a tutorial dialogue system to support self-explanation. In Papers of the AIED-2001 Workshop on Tutorial Dialogue Systems, 59-70. Available via  [PDF]

Aleven, V., & Koedinger, K. R. (2001). Investigations into help seeking and learning with a Cognitive Tutor.  In R. Luckin (Ed.), Working Notes of the AIED-2001 Workshop "Help Provision and Help Seeking in Interactive Learning Environments".  [PDF]

Heffernan, N. T., & Koedinger, K. R. (2001) The Design and Formative Analysis of a Dialog-Based Tutor. In Papers of the AIED-2001 Workshop on Tutorial Dialogue Systems. [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R., Corbett, A. T., Ritter, S., & Shapiro, L. (2000). Carnegie Learning's Cognitive TutorÔ: Summary Research Results. White paper. Available from carnegielearning.com.

Aleven, V., & Koedinger, K. R. (2000).  The need for tutorial dialog to support self-explanation. In Building Dialogue Systems for Tutorial Applications, Papers of the 2000 AAAI Fall Symposium, edited by C. P. Rose and R. Freedman, 65-73. Technical Report FS-00-01. Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press.  [PDF]

Heffernan, N. & Koedinger, K. R. (2000). Building a 3rd generation ITS for symbolization: Adding a tutorial model with multiple tutorial strategies.  In Building Dialogue Systems for Tutorial Applications, Papers of the 2000 AAAI Fall Symposium, edited by C. P. Rose and R. Freedman. Technical Report FS-00-01. Menlo Park, CA: AAAI Press. [PDF]

Heffernan, N. & Koedinger, K. R. (2000). Intelligent tutoring systems are missing the tutor:  Building a more strategic dialog-based tutor. Learning Algebra with the Computer, a Transdisciplinary Workshop.  Intelligent Tutoring Systems Workshop. [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R. (2000). A demo of PAT: A Cognitive Tutor for algebra.  Learning Algebra with the Computer, a Transdisciplinary Workshop.  Intelligent Tutoring Systems Workshop.

Popescu, O. & Koedinger, K. R. (2000). Towards understanding geometry explanations.  Building Dialogue Systems for Tutorial Applications.  AAAI Fall Symposium 2000. [PDF]

Junker, B., Koedinger, K. R., & Trottini, M. (2000). Finding improvements in student models for intelligent tutoring systems via variable selection for a linear logistic test model.  Presented at the Annual North American Meeting of the Psychometric Society, Vancouver, BC, Canada. [PDF]

Koedinger, K. R. & Junker, B. (1999). Learning Factors Analysis: Mining student-tutor interactions to optimize instruction.  Presented at Social Science Data Infrastructure Conference.  New York University.  November, 12-13, 1999.

Koedinger, K. R. (1998). Intelligent cognitive tutors as modeling tool and instructional model.  Invited paper for the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards 2000 Technology Conference.  On web at [PDF]

Nathan, M. J., & Koedinger, K.R. (1993). A Comparative Analysis of Learning Environment Design: The Case of Mathematical Word Problem Solving. Panel at the 1993 Conference on AI & Education (Edinburgh, UK).

Koedinger, K. R. (1992).  Emergent properties and structural constraints:  Advantages of diagrammatic representations for reasoning and learning.  In the working notes of the 1992 AAAI Spring Symposia on Reasoning with Diagrammatic Representations, Stanford University, March 27-29.  [PDF]

Koedinger, K.R., & Anderson, J.R. (1990b).  Theoretical and empirical motivations for the design of ANGLE:  A New Geometry Learning Environment.  Appears in the working notes of the 1990 AAAI Spring Symposia on Knowledge-Based Environments for Learning and Teaching, Stanford University, March 27-29.

Koedinger, K.R. (1989b).  An example of insight through referent-based reasoning.  Presented at the Seventh Annual Pitt-CMU Graduate Student Conference on Cognition. Pittsburgh, PA.

Koedinger, K.R. (1987).  Abstract planning and successive refinement by geometry experts.  Presented at the Fifth Annual Pitt-CMU Graduate Student Conference on Cognition.  Pittsburgh, PA.

Koedinger, K.R., Maclin, R., Streibel, M.J., & Stewart, J. (1987).  Intelligent tutoring systems design issues for a genetics laboratory microworld called MENDEL.  Presented at the Third International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Education, Pittsburgh, PA.

Books

Snyder, J. & Koedinger, K. R.  (1999). Cognitive Tutor Geometry.  Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Learning.

Chapters in Books

  Aleven, V., McLaughlin, E. A., Glenn, R. A., & Koedinger, K. R. (2016). Instruction based on adaptive learning technologies. In R. E. Mayer and P. A. Alexander (Eds), Handbook of Research on Learning and Instruction.

Koedinger, K.R. & Wiese, E. S.(2015) Accounting for Socializing Intelligence with the Knowledge-Learning-Instruction Framework. In Resnick, L.B., Asterhan, C. and Clarke, S.N. (Eds.), Socializing Intelligence through Academic Talk and Dialogue. Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.

Koedinger, K.R. & McLaughlin, E.A. (2014). The knowledge-learning-instruction (KLI) dependency: How the domain-specific and domain-general interact in STEM learning. In M. McDaniel, R. Frey, S. Fitzpatrick, & H.L. Roediger (Eds), Integrating cognitive science with innovative teaching in STEM disciplines [E-reader version]. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7936/K76Q1V59.

Koedinger, K.R. & Roll, I. (2012). Learning to think: Cognitive mechanisms of knowledge transfer.  To appear in Holyoak, K.J. & Morrison, R. G. (Eds.), Oxford Handbook of Thinking and Reasoning. [PDF]

Aleven, V., Roll, I., & Koedinger, K. R. (2012). Progress in assessment and tutoring of lifelong learning skills: An intelligent tutor agent that helps students become better help seekers. In P. J. Durlach & A. M. Lesgold (Eds.), Adaptive technologies for training and education (pp. 69-95). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Koedinger, K. R., Baker, R., Cunningham, K., Skogsholm, A., Leber, B., Stamper, J. (2011).  A data repository for the EDM community: The PSLC DataShop. In C. Romero, S. Ventura , M. Pechenizkiy, R.S.J.d. Baker (Eds.).  Handbook of Educational Data Mining. (pp. 43-55) Boca Raton , FL : CRC Press. PDF

Shih, B., Koedinger, K.R., and Scheines, R. (2011). A response time model for bottom-out hints as worked examples. In C. Romero, S. Ventura, M. Pechenizkiy, R.S.J.d. Baker (Eds.).  Handbook of Educational Data Mining (pp. 201-212). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press

Koedinger, K. R., Aleven, V., Roll, I., & Baker, R. (2009). In vivo experiments on whether supporting metacognition in intelligent tutoring systems yields robust learning. In D. J. Hacker, J. Dunlosky, & A. C. Graesser (Eds.), Handbook of Metacognition in Education (pp. 897-964). The Educational Psychology Series. New York : Routledge. PDF

Ritter, Steven; Haverty, Lisa; Koedinger, Kenneth; Hadley, William; Corbett, Albert. Integrating intelligent software tutors with the math classroom. G. Blume and K. Heid (Eds.), Research on Technology and the Teaching and Learning of Mathematics: Vol. 2 Cases and Perspectives. Charlotte, NC: IAP. . 2008.

Razzaq, Heffernan, Koedinger, Feng, Nuzzo-Jones, Junker, Macasek, Rasmussen, Turner & Walonoski (2007). A Web-based Authoring Tool for Intelligent Tutors: Assessment and Instructional Assistance.  In Nadia Nedjah, et al. (Eds.) Intelligent Educational Machines.  Intelligent Systems Engineering Book Series. Springer.  http://www.springerlink.com/content/m2g23834641m858n/fulltext.pdf.

Koedinger, K. R. & Corbett, A. T. (2006). Cognitive Tutors: Technology bringing learning science to the classroom. In K. Sawyer (Ed.) The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences, (pp. 61-78). Cambridge University Press. PDF

Aleven, V., McLaren, B. M., & Koedinger, K.R. (2006). In Help Seeking in Academic Settings: Goals, Groups and Contexts. (pp. 259-296) Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Kalchman, M. & Koedinger, K. R. (2005).  Teaching and learning functions. In Donovan, S. & Bransford, J. (Eds.) How Students Learn. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Koedinger, K. R. (2001).  Cognitive tutors as modeling tool and instructional model.   In Forbus, K. D. & Feltovich, P. J. (Eds.)  Smart Machines in Education: The Coming Revolution in Educational Technology, (pp. 145-168).  Menlo Park, CA:  AAAI/MIT Press. 
Earlier version Koedinger (1998), position paper for NCTM Standards 2000, Technology Workshop.  See http://www.carnegielearning.com/ research_fs.html. 

Corbett, A. T., Koedinger, K. R., & Hadley, W. H. (2001).  Cognitive Tutors: From the research classroom to all classrooms.  In Goodman, P. S. (Ed.) Technology Enhanced Learning: Opportunities for Change, (pp. 235-263). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Koedinger, K. R. (1998).  Conjecturing and argumentation in high school geometry students.  In Lehrer, R. and Chazan, D. (Eds.) New Directions in the Teaching and Learning of Geometry.  Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Corbett, A. T., Koedinger, K. R., & Anderson, J. R. (1997).  Intelligent tutoring systems.  In Helander, M. G., Landauer, T. K., & Prabhu, P. V. (Ed.s) Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction, (pp. 849-874).  Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science B. V.

Koedinger, K.R., & Anderson, J.R. (1993a).  Reifying implicit planning in geometry:  Guidelines for model-based intelligent tutoring system design.  In Lajoie, S., & Derry, S. (Eds.) Computers as Cognitive Tools.  Hillsdale, NJ:  Erlbaum.

Technical Reports

Koedinger, K. R., & Sueker, E. L. F.  (2014). Monitored design of an effective learning environment for algebraic problem solving.  CMU-HCII Tech Report 14-102.  Accessible via http://reports-archive.adm.cs.cmu.edu/hcii.html.
Builds upon conference proceedings Koedinger & Sueker (1996).

Woodward, J., Beckmann, S., Driscoll, M., Franke, M., Herzig, P., Jitendra, A., Koedinger, K. R., & Ogbuehi, P. (2010). Improving mathematical problem solving in grades 4 through 8: A practice guide (NCEE #). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Retrieved from http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/publications/practiceguides.

Koedinger, K. R., Corbett, A. C., & Perfetti, C. (2010).  The Knowledge-Learning-Instruction (KLI) framework: Bridging the science-practice chasm to enhance robust student learning. Submitted for peer review. [PDF]

Pashler, H., Bain, P., Bottge, B., Graesser, A., Koedinger, K., McDaniel, M., and Metcalfe, J. (2007). Organizing Instruction and Study to Improve Student Learning (NCER 2007-2004). Washington , DC : National Center for Education Research, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education.

Matsuda, N., Cohen, W. W., Sewall, J. & Koedinger, K. R. (2006). Applying Machine Learning to Cognitive Modeling for Cognitive Tutors, Technical report CMU-ML-06-105, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University.

Matsuda, N., Cohen, W. W., Sewall, J. & Koedinger, K. R. (2006). What characterizes a better demonstration for cognitive modeling by demonstration? Technical report CMU-ML-06-106, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University .

Ainsworth, S., Honey, M., Johnson, W. L., Koedinger, K. R., Muramatsu, B., Pea, R., Recker, M., & Weimar, S. (2005). Cyberinfrastructure for Education and Learning for the Future (CELF): A Vision and Research Agenda.   Computing Research Association.  Available from http://www.cra.org/reports/cyberinfrastructure.pdf.

Baker, R.S., Wagner, A.Z., Corbett, A.T., Koedinger, K.R. (2004). The social role of technical personnel in the deployment of Intelligent Tutoring Systems. CMU Technical Report CMU-HCII-04-100, July 2004.

Koedinger, K.R., & MacLaren, B. A. (2002).  Developing a pedagogical domain theory of early algebra problem solving.   CMU-HCII Tech Report 02-100.  [PDF]

PACT Center Team (1999).  Cognitive Tutor Algebra User’s Guide.  Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Learning.

PACT Center Team (1999).  Cognitive Tutor Geometry User’s Guide.  Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Learning.

PACT Center Team (1999).  Cognitive Tutor Geometry Teacher’s Guide.  Pittsburgh, PA: Carnegie Learning.

Patents and Invention Disclosures

Koedinger, K.R. & Skogsholm, A. (2010). DataShop: A data repository and analysis tools for educational data mining. Invention disclosure to CMU.

Koedinger, K.R., Aleven, V., & McLaren (2009). Cognitive Tutor Authoring Tools. Invention disclosure to CMU.

240. Heffernan, N. & Koedinger, K. R. (2000). A Method for Dynamic Multi-Strategy Computer-Based Tutorial Dialog.  Patent No. 6,634,887.  October, 21, 2003.

Anderson, J.R., Corbett, A., Hadley, W., Koedinger, K.R., Ritter, S. et al. Cognitive Tutors for mathematics. Invention disclosure to CMU about 1995.

241.Koedinger, K. R. & Junker, B. (in preparation).  Learning Factors Analysis.  Invention disclosure in preparation.